Figure 1. Classification of Hip Fracture According to Anatomical Fracture Site.
Hip fractures are anatomically classified in relation to the hip capsule as intracapsular (i.e., at the femoral neck) or extracapsular (i.e., intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric). Femoral-neck fractures may be nondisplaced (i.e., very little separation at the fracture site, occurring in approximately one third of femoral-neck fractures) or displaced (i.e., greater separation). Fractures below the femoral neck are referred as intertrochanteric fractures, and those below the lesser trochanter as subtrochanteric fractures.
Figure 2：Recommended Management of Hip Fracture, Depending on Location of Fracture and Whether the Fracture Is Displaced.
Figure 4. Selected Treatments for Hip Fracture.
Panel A shows internal fixation with multiple screws for a nondisplaced femoral-neck fracture. Panel B shows internal fixation with a sliding hip screw for the treatment of a fracture at the base of the femoral neck. The same fixation is recommended for stable intertrochanteric fractures. Panel C shows a hemiarthroplasty and a total hip arthroplasty for a displaced femoral-neck fracture.